• Mikko Paasi

3D documentation project of Finnish mines



One of Finland's specialties when it comes to recreational diving is definitely our diverse mines, which have been filled with clear groundwater since the end of mining operations. Visibility in these dramatic open and closed quarries is better than average, and even excellent inside the rock, compared to the precarious conditions of the archipelago and lakes. It is this fact, the mystique of the tunnels, and the easy and safe travel to the destination that makes the mines very popular with scuba diving and fun diving.

These mines also have cultural and historical significance and their long history should not be forgotten.


However, as a dive site, mines can be very labyrinthine and often require complex navigation and special training to safely dive in, and this in turn requires careful planning. There are two-dimensional drawn maps of the mines in dive use, outlining the diving routes marked with guide lines.




These maps are often very difficult to understand and require experience from the reader, especially if the mine has multiple levels. From these two-dimensional maps that exist from each different level it is really difficult to grasp their three-dimensional nature, i.e., the connections between different levels. Also, distances, depths, navigational signs, constrictions, and visual details are often completely overlooked.

All of this, of course, jeopardizes the safety of divers as well as lowers the image and demand for mining in general.


The purpose of this documentation project would be to improve the safety of mine diving and to raise the profile of our culturally and historically important mines by building three-dimensional and realistic maps of them and documenting their history and the most interesting details for all interested to see.


The documentation method would be 3D photogrammetry, video and photographs, as well as various existing materials such as old videos and the mine drawings and blue prints. A good example of this is a test run from the “Mario World” corridor in Ojamo mine between K5 and K7, documented by Kari Hyttinen and Pasi Lammi in 2015.

The model is videoed simply in one run in and out.



The benefits of 3D modeling include precise details of the tunnels to which scales can be attached in all directions, as well as zooming the image for important navigation-related and interesting details. These points can later be used, for example, in dive planning, training, rehabilitation of guide lines, and possible search / rescue operations.